Shale gas extraction increases the danger of seismic activity
During hydraulic fracturing specialized measuring equipment records micro vibrations which are a result of the micro cracks underground. This does not mean that these types of vibrations cause bigger earthquakes - especially in Poland where there is little seismic activity. Admittedly, mountain areas are known to have bursts or earth tremor; however, there is no clear evidence that shale gas mining has any impact on such phenomena.
Occurrence of shale gas in Poland was noted some time ago
Hydrocarbons have been known to Polish specialists since the 1960s. Admittedly, their estimate and location was not precise and exploration on a wider scale was not performed - this was due to technological difficulties and, most of all, lack of interest in gas from unconventional resources. Not until the twenty first century was exploration of gas in Poland performed on a wider scale - mainly due to the Pomerania concessions.
Shale gas extraction entails a danger of ''water fire''
This phenomenon is shown in the famous movie "Gasland" which proved that it had no connection to unconventional gas extraction. The fire caused by the presence of biogenic methane in water was not the result of exploration activities. The problem was connected with the methane deposits located near a water intake but the Pennsylvania authorities warned house owners of the need to safely ventilate methane from their wells long before the development of the Marcellus deposit. Abiding by the laws in force which in Europe are much more restrictive than in the USA and proper care of the environment by extraction companies may completely eliminate the risk of penetrating the gas into drinking water.
Shale gas extraction may be hazardous
Despites many risks associated with every branch of industry, the oil and gas industry has developed procedures over the years which increase safety. Experience, i.e. Canada, indicate that success has been achieved due to rigorous safety norms and good practice developed over decades. According to the 2009 statistics prepared in Alberta the local oil and gas industry was nearly two times safer than the construction or transport industry, and half as hazardous as agriculture and forestry.
Chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing are veiled in secrecy
Chemical substances used in the process of exploration and extraction of gas must be clearly documented according to the local law as well as adhere to the detailed regulations of the European Union and the European Chemicals Agency. Many companies and institutions are promoting full clarity and availability of the information concerning substances used in exploration
Shale gas is a type of fuel used for only several years Shale gas has been in use for over two centuries. In 1821, near the town of Fredonia in the state of New York, methane was extracted from Devonian shale. It powered the town - all thanks to William Hart, who is considered "the father of natural gas in America." It happened 40 years before the first drillings in search of oil in this country.
Shale gas has been in use for over two centuries. In 1821, near the town of Fredonia in the state of New York, methane was extracted from Devonian shale. It powered the town - all thanks to William Hart, who is considered "the father of natural gas in America." It happened 40 years before the first drillings in search of oil in this country.
Fracturing liquid contains harmful chemicals which can contaminate the soil
This statement is seriously inaccurate. Fracturing liquid injected into the borehole is composed of 95 % plain water and 3-4 % sand. Chemicals, however, constitute relatively little of the liquid.
It is also worth mentioning the type of chemicals used in the drilling liquid. It is essential to point out that these substances are not unknown or toxic, of course if the procedures are in compliance with the rules of environment protection.
The liquid contains substances which are used in the food industry which are an element of food (such as citric acid or guar gum). There are also disinfecting and cleaning substances (such as hydrochloric acid, ethylene glycol or glutaraldehyde). A liquid with similar composition is used in other fields of mining (such as oil or geothermal).
Abiding by the environment safety requirements connected with injecting the drilling liquid and preventing it from penetrating into the water layers is the basis for any operation. In this case, the fracturing liquid is analogous in composition to other substances used in the mining industry.
Exploitation of shale resources can improve Polish energy security
Significant amounts of shale gas can constitute an extremely valuable reserve which can at least in part solve the ever occurring postulate in the public debate of diversifying energy sources. As long as the actual volume of the deposits is unknown - it is difficult to talk about a specific time period in which we are able to become fully independent from importing this resource. It does not change the fact that trying to extract unconventional resources in the form of gas can have a significant impact on making Poland energy independent.