Four stages can be distinguished connected with exploration and extraction.
Etap 1: Poszukiwanie i rozpoznanie złóż
Etap 2: Przygotowanie i zagospodarowanie złoża
Etap 3: Eksploatacja - wydobycie gazu
Etap 4: Likwidacja złoża
Exploring and extracting gas must be carried out with respect to all rules and regulations concerning environment safety and with attention to making the impact on the environment least harmful.
In order to begin key operations it is wise to prepare non-invasive seismological analyses. Due to geophone technology we are able to precisely determine geological composition of layers which is an essential introduction to determining exploration drills. Later, the chosen spot is set up with equipment which will proceed with further identification of the resource.
The bore is drilled with utmost attention to safety, including multi-layer piping and soundproof screens. This protects ground waters and is the least invasive activity in geological layers. In later stages of drilling, when the tests produce good results, the vertical drills become horizontal. These steps require attention to bore security and allow for minimal invasion when reaching the reserve where the shale gas is located. It should be noted that this technology is relatively new and requires great knowledge and specialized equipment (window: the evolution of natural gas extraction from unconventional reserves).
The next stage of the bore is "perforation" which involves using a specialized machine that sets off small explosives which form small cracks in rocks. The next stage involves activities connected with hydraulic fracturing.
In short: after geophone tests and locating the bore, the drill is conducted vertically and then horizontally which helps reaching gas reserves.